Coding and design conventions

This is what we do to keep the Reahl project consistent, understandable and organised.

Coding style

We follow PEP8 with some slight exceptions and additions.

Deviations to PEP8

We use max line length of 120 instead of the 79 in PEP8.


Imports are grouped into paragraphs, and these paragraphs are in a particular order: first are the “from future” import and six. Second are imports of the standard library (possibly via six). This is followed by imports of third party packages and finally a paragraph with imports of our own modules.

String quotes

We use single quotes consistently for Python strings, so that we can easily write html-level quotes inside them using double quotes.

Design values and principles

We adhere to object oriented design principles. Understanding these is a life-long journey, but for the record we use the following as guidelines:

We do not believe that generic slogans and rules can absolutely dictate design: real understanding of an actual situation and necessary trade-offs is needed. That said, we’re ‘fond of’ the following values:

Naming things

  • Class names mean something, are usually nouns, never things like BaseXXX or HelperXXX or UtilityXXX.

  • Method names mean something, are verbs and their arguments must make sense in terms of the method name.

On the use of inheritance

  • We do not use multiple inheritance or mixins.

  • Wherever possible we prefer composition over inheritance.

  • If a class inherits from another, it must conceptually be a <whatever its superclass it called>.

  • If you override a method, it should generalise or specialise the one it overrides.

About optimisation

  • Optimise for design clarity first, optimise for speed and memory when needed, but profile first.

Some acronyms we also ascribe to


  • KISS

  • DRY

Important design invariants

Things that are always done a certain way make designs easier. Here are some that we have adopted:

Special method names and behaviour

  • Methods named add_* will always return the thing that was added. For example add_child() always returns the child passed in. This makes it possible to write concise code such as:

    paragraph = Div(view).add_child(P(text='some text in a paragraph'))
  • Methods named define_* create something based on whatever arguments they take, possibly do some housekeeping of the created instance, and then return the created instance. See: define_view().

  • Methods named with_* / without_* will always return a copy of the object that differs only as specified by the with/without method. For example with_description() or with_justified_content().

  • Methods named as_* mostly return something else representing the instance. For example as_input() as_bookmark(). In some rare cases, as_* methods are also used like the with_* methods because they just read better, for example: as_locale_relative() or as_required().

  • Keyword arguments with defaults that should not be globally shared are given as None. They are then set inside the method to the actual default. For example:

    def do_something(a_dict=None):
        a_dict = a_dict or {}
        # or, alternatively
        do_something_else(a_dict or {})

The context

Often, you need access to something from many places in code. Examples of this is: the configuration of the system, the current database transaction or the current web request.

Our solution is to accept that code executes within a current ExecutionContext which contains some important global-ish elements.

The ExecutionContext is not supposed to be extended. It contains a few very specific things that get set up by the framework:

  • The configuration of the system;

  • Ways to manage databases, persistence and database transactions;

  • The current user session; and

  • The current web request.

The idea of such a global context is criticised because it can make testing difficult: you may want to test code that is dependent on such a magic context. We mitigate this problem in the following way:

  • context is stack-based

  • ContextAwareFixture ensures all tests always have a context and that setup/teardown/singleton methods happen inside the right context

  • We have a Context within which all tests and the participating web server runs

  • We have a Context (a copy) within which each test runs, but which does not carry over side-effects

If you understand above mentioned context stuff, you can pretty much live in testing world without much bother.


We write tests that:

  • Serve as a summary of how we understand our problem domain.

  • Each test has a docstring stating that summary in words.

  • The test itself may elaborate more details or show that summary in code.

  • We do not aim for complete coverage of code execution paths, but good enough coverage of problem domain understanding.

  • We organise tests into a hierarchy of directories resembling an outline of the topics covered by the component the tests are for.

  • We do not necessarily write tests first; but we always write them before we’re done and make sure they fit into the above.

In order to be able to write tests the way we want to, we have developed a supporting testing infrastructure with an accompanying set of Fixtures.